Tuesday, 5 April 2016

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Montessori Activity: Metal Fraction Circles


Age: From 4.5 years old

Objectives:

1. To provide sensorial exploration of fractions as well as equivalency among fraction.
2. To introduce the concept of fractions and how fractions are named.
3. To show how to add, subtract, multiply and divide with fractions.

Materials:

1. Metal Fraction Circles (or you can also use Montessori Cut-Out Labeled Fraction Circles)
2. Labels with fractions written on each of them: 1, 1/2, 1/3, 1/4... 1/10
3. Pencil and paper
4. Skittles to present people (for division)

Presentation 1: Sensorial Exploration & Naming

1. Ask your child to bring out the 1st tray of fractions.
2. Explain that a fraction is sharing a whole "cake" into equal parts with your friends.
3. Take out the whole metal circle from its base and place it in front on the tray.
4. Say, “This is one whole.”
5. Take out a 1/2 and say, “This is a 1/2, one cake cut into 2.”
6. Ask, "How many pieces do you need to make a whole cake?" The child should say 2.
7. Say, "2 pieces of 1/2 make a whole cake," and put the two 1/2 together to make one whole.
8. Take out a 1/3 metal circle and say, “This is a 1/3.”
9. Ask, "How many pieces do you need to make a whole cake?" The child should say 3.
10. Say, "3 pieces of 1/3 make a whole cake," and put the three 1/3 to make one whole.
11. Do this for 1/4, and 1/5. Have the child replace each one back into its spot.
12. Do a Three-Period Lesson for the group of 1, group of 2, group of 3, group of 4, and group of 5.
13. Mix up the metal circle parts, invite your child to place them back in their correct spot and repeat several times.
14. Proceed in the same manner to the 2nd tray, when your child is ready.
15. Repeat the activity with both trays, when your child is ready.

Video Demonstration:

Sensorial:


Naming:

Presentation 2: Writing

1. Point to a few fractions and ask  your child what it is. This will serve as your check to see if the child knows the names.
2. Show him how to write fractions.
3. Point to the second circle and ask, "How many pieces there are?" He should answer 2.
4. Say, “Yes, there are two pieces, so I will write a 2.”
5. Take out a 1/2, place it on front of the tray and ask, "How many pieces are here?" He should answer 1.
6. Say, “There is one." and write a line above 2 and write 1 over it.
7. Put back the 1/2 back onto the tray.
8. Repeat for all of the remaining fractions.
9. Explain that we place the total number of pieces on the bottom and we call it the "Denominator"
10 Explain that we place the piece we have isolated and taken out over the line and we call it the "Numerator."
11. Do a Three Period Lesson for Numerator and Denominator.
12. The take out 2/3 or 7/9 or 2/5, etc and invite your child to write these fractions. Then read these with the child.

Presentation 3: Labeling

1. Ask your child to bring out the 2 trays of fractions.
2. Place the fraction labels in their corresponding places in front of the tray.
3. Ask your child to label each part of each fraction and read it as he goes about doing it.
4. Ask the child for the names of the numerator and denominator to check for understanding.
5. Play a game: you pick a slip with a fraction written on it ask your child to point to it or take a piece out of the tray.

Presentation 4: Addition with same denominator

1. Ask your child to bring out the 2 trays.
2. Write and read an addition equation with 2 fractions:

2/6 + 3/6 =

3. Show your child that we take out 1/6 metal circle twice = 2/6.
4. Place these two pieces in front of the tray.
5. Take out 1/6 metal circle pieces three times = 3/6.
6. Ask, "How many 1/6 are there?" Your child should answer 5.
7. Show your child how to write the answer as shown:

2/6 + 3/6 = 5/6

8. Read the whole equation to your child.
9. Write another addition problem and invite your child to try.
10. After a few rounds, explain that we can only add fractions with the same denominator such as:

2/4 + 1/4 = 3/4

Presentation 4: Subtraction with same denominator

1. Write and read a subtraction equation:

4/8 – 1/8 =

2. Take out 4/8 pieces and place it in front of the tray.
3. Point to a 1/8 piece and say, “I am going to take away 1/8”
4. Remove 1/8 from the 4/8 to the side.
5. Ask, "How many 8th are left?" Your child should answer 3/8.
6. Ask your child to write the answer on the equation.
7. Repeat a few times. See example below

3/4 - 2/4 = 1/4

4/6 - 1/6 = 3/6

Presentation 5: Multiplication by a whole number

1. Write and read a multiplication equation:

2/8 x 3 =

2. Say, “We are going to take 2/8 three times.”
3. Take 2/8 one time, two times and three times.
4. Place them together and ask your child to count the total number of 8ths.  He should answer 6.
5. Ask your to write the answer on the equation.
6. Repeat a few times. See example below:

1/4 x 3 =

7. When he understands, he can use the equations written on the prepared cards.

Presentation 6: Division by a whole number

1. Write and read a division equation:

4/4 ÷ 2 = 

2. Ask, "How many will we be dividing?" and ask your child to place two skittles or Lego men in a row below the trays.
3. Ask your child how many 4ths we need to start. (four 1/4)
4. Place all 4 of the 1/4 pieces of metal circles below the tray.
5. Tell the child that we need to share these 4 pieces evenly between our two skittles or people.
6. Ask your child to give each person evenly the 1/4 pieces of circle.
7. Explain that in division we always want to know how many 1 got.
8. Ask your child how many 1/4 pieces each person got? He should answer 2 i.e. 2/4 meaning 2 of the 1/4 pieces each.
9. invite your child to write the answer on the equation.
10. Repeat several times. See examples below:

3/8 ÷ 3 = 1/8

Presentation 7: Equivalence

1. Look with the child to see if it is possible to fill 1/3 with any other fraction. For example two 1/6 will fit for one 1/3.
2. Guide the child to this discovery, but do not tell him. This should be experienced by the child.
3. Invite your child can make his own chart of the equivalencies.

Video Demonstration:

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